It had been debating on origin of life since the time of Aristotel (4 centuries before Christ). At that time the predominant theory was based on a concept of spontaneous generation. It was said that living creatures are derived from inanimate matter spontaneously. This theory was discredited by renaissance scientists (around the 17th century) as Louis Pasteur (1862) and other scientists. They concluded their observations that living organism appears from other living organism. This theory called biogenesis that is omne vivum ex ovo means every living thing is from its eggs.
Where did the first living organisms come from? To answer this question scientists developed several theories. Recent scientific theory says that life emerged from a long increasingly complex chain of chemical reactions. The chemical reactions came from the depths of oceans because atmosphere was not sufficiently safe to protect living organism from ultraviolet radiation. It was discovered filament structures smaller than bacteria containing DNA in deep rocks. Biologist had long detected and studied the existence of archae that is microorganism, bacterium-like organism, living in harsh ecology such as in deep under surface of ocean (Chem Duke, 2008). Water commences its vital role in creation of all the living things.
Figure 1. Three Dimensions of Water (Wikipedia.org.2012)
Water contains in resevoirs in different steps within the so called water cycle. Based on Space About (2009), the water cycle consists of five parts
1) Condensation : water vapour condenses in the atmosphere to form clouds. Condensation occurs when the temperature of the air or earth changes. Water pavour in the form of clouds changes states become drops of water when temperature cool enough. This process is noticeable on leaves as they dew in the morning.
2) Infiltration is the seeping process of water into the ground. This occurrence depends on the condition of the soil.
3) Runoff: When the water falling over the ground cannot seep into the ground due to less permeable of soil, then the water flows on the surface of the ground. The runoff flows into streams, rivers and eventually reach lakes or oceans
4) Evaporation: The power of the sun is always driving water to change its form to be pavour. This happens on all of the surfaces of earth and vegetation.
5) Precipitation. The Condensation makes water change into drops of water falling down as precipitation..
Figure 2. Jatiluhur Dam.West Java. (Jatilihur.org.id/dam.2010)
A person can live without food for more than a month, but can live for only a few days without water. All living things need water to survive. The human body needs two liters of water a day. The average human body is composed of about 55% water. Most of our food is water; tomatoes 95%, spinach 91%, milk 90%, apple 85%, potatoes 80%, and beef 61% (Geocities. Com, 2009).
Figure 3. Drought and Starvation (Photo contributed by Sani Manga. Abuja.Nigeria.2011)
The property of water is able to dissolve other substances. Were it not for the solven property of water, life could not exist because water transfers nutrients vital in animal and plants and also in human body. There are many therapeutic measures recommended to drink water, plain water.
The largest accounting for 97% water is in the collection of oceans. The second largest quantity as much as 2 % is water stored in solid form in the ice caps and glaciers. And the rest, in small quantity, water contained within all living organisms. The distribution of the earth’s water are as groundwater 0.68%, in lakes 0.01%, as soil moisture 0.005%, as gas in atmosphere 0.001%, in streams and rivers 0.0001%, and contained in the bodies of living organisms (animals’ body including human body and vegetation) 0.00004% (Wikipedia.org, 2008)
The volume of water never changes since it came